Stem Cell Therapy

Stem Cell Therapy “The pessimistsees difficulty in every opportunity. The optimist sees opportunity in every difficulty” What are stem cells Stem cells are relatively primitive cells that can be stimulated to produce large families of cells that can then be instructed by chemical cues to produce various types of specialised cells, e.g. kidney tubular cells.  How it is started 1800s

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Exercises during pregnancy – (Antenatal Exercises)

EXERCISES DURING PREGNANCY  ANTENATAL EXERCISES USES OF ANTENATAL EXERCISE Muscles of good tone are more elastic and will regain their farther strength more efficiently and more quickly after being stretched than muscles of poor tone. Exercising abdominal muscles antenatally will ensure a speedy return to normal. Postnatally effective pushing in labor as the lessing of backache in pregnancy. The ligaments

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Abortion | Abortion Process

Abortion | Abortion Process   Definition: Abortion is the termination of pregnancy before the period of viability which is considered to occur at 28th week. The term miscarriage which is commonly used is synonymous with abortion. Abortion is the removal of a fetus from the uterus before it is mature enough to live on its own; it is the act of

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Incidence of Abortion

Incidence of abortion: In USA: In the statistics done in 2003, 16 women for every 1000 women aged 14-15 years had an abortion and for every 1000 births, about 241 abortions were performed, according to the centers for disease control and prevention. Safety:-Legal abortions are almost safe. Infection rates are less than 1% in legal abortion. Race:-Among all races whites

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Abortion Process : Mechanism of Abortion

Mechanism of Abortion In the early weeks death of the ovum occurs first,followed by its expulsion.In the later weeks,maternal environmental factors are involved leading to expulsion of the fetus which may have signs of life but is too small to survive. Before 8weeks: The ovum surrounded by the villi with the deciduaal coverings,is expelled out intact.Sometimes the external os fails to

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Causes of Abortion | Reasons for Abortion

Causes of Abortion: 1. ovular or fetal 2. maternal environment 3. paternal factor 4. unknown ovo-fetal factors (60%) (a) the ovo-fetal factors usually operate in early fetal wastage. Meticulous histological and cytogenetic study of the abortus reveals gross defects in the ovum or the fetus. The defects include malformation blighted ovum (ovum without embryo) death or disease of the fetus

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Threatened abortion

Threatened abortion Definition: It is a clinical entity was the process of abortion has started but has not progressed to a state from which recovery is impossible. Threatened abortion is the earliest stage of most spontaneous abortions. There is bleeding from the genital tract, but the cervix is closed and there is no discharge of products of conception. The clinical features

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Inevitable abortion

Inevitable abortion       Definition: It is the clinical type of abortion where the changes  have progressed to a state from where continuation of pregnancy is impossible. It is characterized by: considerable bleeding lower abdominal pain the general condition of the patient is proportionate to the visible blood loss internal examination reveals dilated internal os of the cervix through which

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Complete and Incomplete Abortion

Complete abortion Definition: is when all the contents are expelled. It is called complete abortion. Clinical features:  There is history of expulsion of a fleshy mass per vaginam followed by: Subsidence of abdominal pain. Vaginal bleeding becomes trace or absent. Internal examination reveals: (a) uterus is smaller than the period of amenorrhoea and a little firmer. (b) Cervical os is closed.

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