Abortion | Abortion Process

Abortion | Abortion Process   Definition: Abortion is the termination of pregnancy before the period of viability which is considered to occur at 28th week. The term miscarriage which is commonly used is synonymous with abortion. Abortion is the removal of a fetus from the uterus before it is mature enough to live on its own; it is the act of

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Incidence of Abortion

Incidence of abortion: In USA: In the statistics done in 2003, 16 women for every 1000 women aged 14-15 years had an abortion and for every 1000 births, about 241 abortions were performed, according to the centers for disease control and prevention. Safety:-Legal abortions are almost safe. Infection rates are less than 1% in legal abortion. Race:-Among all races whites

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Abortion Process : Mechanism of Abortion

Mechanism of Abortion In the early weeks death of the ovum occurs first,followed by its expulsion.In the later weeks,maternal environmental factors are involved leading to expulsion of the fetus which may have signs of life but is too small to survive. Before 8weeks: The ovum surrounded by the villi with the deciduaal coverings,is expelled out intact.Sometimes the external os fails to

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Causes of Abortion | Reasons for Abortion

Causes of Abortion: 1. ovular or fetal 2. maternal environment 3. paternal factor 4. unknown ovo-fetal factors (60%) (a) the ovo-fetal factors usually operate in early fetal wastage. Meticulous histological and cytogenetic study of the abortus reveals gross defects in the ovum or the fetus. The defects include malformation blighted ovum (ovum without embryo) death or disease of the fetus

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Threatened abortion

Threatened abortion Definition: It is a clinical entity was the process of abortion has started but has not progressed to a state from which recovery is impossible. Threatened abortion is the earliest stage of most spontaneous abortions. There is bleeding from the genital tract, but the cervix is closed and there is no discharge of products of conception. The clinical features

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Inevitable abortion

Inevitable abortion       Definition: It is the clinical type of abortion where the changes  have progressed to a state from where continuation of pregnancy is impossible. It is characterized by: considerable bleeding lower abdominal pain the general condition of the patient is proportionate to the visible blood loss internal examination reveals dilated internal os of the cervix through which

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Complete and Incomplete Abortion

Complete abortion Definition: is when all the contents are expelled. It is called complete abortion. Clinical features:  There is history of expulsion of a fleshy mass per vaginam followed by: Subsidence of abdominal pain. Vaginal bleeding becomes trace or absent. Internal examination reveals: (a) uterus is smaller than the period of amenorrhoea and a little firmer. (b) Cervical os is closed.

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Missed abortion (silent miscarriage)

Missed abortion (silent miscarriage) Definition- When the fetus is dead and retained inside the uterus for a variable period, it is called missed abortion or silent miscarriage or early fetal demise. Pathology: the cause of prolonged retention of the dead fetus in the uterus is not clear. Beyond 12 weeks, the retained fetus becomes macerated or mummified. The liquor amnii

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Septic abortion

Septic abortion Definition: Any abortion associated with clinical evidence of infection of the uterus and its contents, is called septic abortion. Although criteriavary, abortion is usually considered septic when there are: (1) rise of temperature of at least 100.4°F (38˚C) for 24 hours or more; (2) offensive or purulent vaginal discharge and (3) other evidences of pelvic infection such as

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