Missed abortion (silent miscarriage)

Missed abortion (silent miscarriage) Definition- When the fetus is dead and retained inside the uterus for a variable period, it is called missed abortion or silent miscarriage or early fetal demise. Pathology: the cause of prolonged retention of the dead fetus in the uterus is not clear. Beyond 12 weeks, the retained fetus becomes macerated or mummified. The liquor amnii

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Septic abortion

Septic abortion Definition: Any abortion associated with clinical evidence of infection of the uterus and its contents, is called septic abortion. Although criteriavary, abortion is usually considered septic when there are: (1) rise of temperature of at least 100.4°F (38˚C) for 24 hours or more; (2) offensive or purulent vaginal discharge and (3) other evidences of pelvic infection such as

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Recurrent miscarriage (abortion)

RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE Definition:  Recurrent miscarriage (abortion) is defined as a  sequence of three or more consecutive spontaneous miscarriages. Some however, consider two or more as a standard. It may be primary or secondary (having previous viable birth). A woman procuring three consecutive induced abortion is not a habitual aborter. Incidence: This distressing problem is affecting approximately 1% of all women

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Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (MTP)

Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (MTP) Indications:   If the continuation of pregnancy would involve serious risk of life or grave injury to the physical and mental health of the pregnant women. To save life of mother. Social indications: If the pregnancy caused due to failure of contraception or rape etc… Eugenic: Substantial risk of the child being born with serious physical and mental

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Multiple Pregnancy | Twin Pregnancy | Twins Babies

  Multiple Pregnancy | Twin Pregnancy | Twins Babies: When more than one fetus is simultaneously develops in the uterus, it is called multiple pregnancy. Simultaneous development of two fetuses (triplets), four fetuses (quadruplets), five fetuses (quintuplets), or six fetuses (sextuplets) may also occur. The term ‘ Multiple Pregnancy | Twin Pregnancy | Twins Babies ’ is used to describe

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Multiple Pregnancy / Twin Pregnancy – Varieties

Multiple Pregnancy / Twin Pregnancy – Varieties : Binovular twins    Uniovular twins Binovular twins (syn: fraternal, dizygotic) It is the commonest and results from the fertilization two ova, most likely ruptured from two different graffian follicles usually of the same or one from each ovary. Uniovular twins (syn: identical, monozygotic)                             Results from the fertilization of a single ovum, twinning

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Multiple Pregnancy / Twin Pregnancy – Etiology (causes)

Multiple Pregnancy / Twin Pregnancy – Etiology (causes) Race: the frequency is highest amongst Negrose. Lowest amongst Mongols and intermediate amongst Caucasians. Hereditary: there is hereditary predisposition likely to be more transmitted through the female (maternal side). Advancing age of the mother: increased incidence of twining is observed with the advancing age of the mother, the maximum being between the age of 30

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Twin Pregnancy Symptoms / Multiple Pregnancy Symptoms – Diagnosis

Diagnosis History collection History of ovulation inducing drugs specially gonadotrophins, for infertility. Family history of twining (more often present in the maternal side) Symptoms Increased nausea & vomiting Cardio pulmonary embarrassment. Tendency of swelling of legs,    varicose veins and hemorrhoids. Unusual rate of abdominal enlargement and excessive fetal movements. General Examination Prevalence of anemia is more than in singleton pregnancy.

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Multiple Pregnancy / Twin Pregnancy – Investigations

Multiple Pregnancy / Twin Pregnancy – Investigations: Sonography: two gestational sacs can be detected as early as 10th week of pregnancy Detection of two fetal heads and their accurate measurement of biparietal diameters can be made by the 14th week For assessment of placenta ion, sonar is done between 16-24 weeks. Radiography: Is done less often these days. Two fetal heads and

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Multiple Pregnancy / Twin Pregnancy – Complications

Multiple Pregnancy / Twin Pregnancy – Complications: Maternal During pregnancy: ♠       nausea and vomiting occurs with increased frequency and severity ♠       Anemia is more common in twin pregnancy. ♠       Pre-eclampsia (25%) is increased three times over singleton pregnancy. Over distension of the uterus may be the possible explanation. ♠       Hydramnios (10%)  is more common in uniovular twins and usually involves the second sac. It is perhaps due to increased

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